Egyptian Arabic Dictionary


Arabic Writing

This document describes the arabic alphabet, and how it can be written using roman letters.

Please remember that Egyptian Arabic is an oral language. When people are asked to write it, some write in Modern Standard Arabic and then pronounce it the Egyptian way, others write it as an Egyptian would say it. As a result, there may some variation in the way things are spelt. For example, many verbs end in alif-layena aY ى, but many people write it as a regular alif aaa اَ.

Arabic script

There are 28 basic letters in Egyptian arabic, and about a dozen modifiers.

ابنتدذجحخرزسشصضطظعغفقكلمنهوي

Writing goes from right to left, and the majority of arabic letters join onto the following letter and so there are therefore four forms of each letter: solitary, initial, middle and final. For the six letters that do not join, there are just two forms- solitary and final.

positionnormal letternon-joining letter
solitaryجد
initialجـ
middleـجـ
finalـجـد

The three short vowels aa َ, ii ِ and uu ُ and shadda ّ, which doubles the length of a consonant, are collectively called tashkeeltashkyl تـَشكيل or vowellization. Tashkyl is not normally used in written arabic apart from in the Quran. If they are used, they are written above a consonant but pronounced after it: for the convenience of non-arabic readers, I have included the tashkyl, but written it after the consonant.

See the Arabic Alphabet section for full information about each arabic letter, including the european letters used.

Transliteration

It can be a big challenge learning arabic writing at the same time as learning Egyptian Arabic, so words in the dictionary are written both in Arabic and in European letters. There are two forms of writing in european letters: Transliterated and Pronounced.

Transliterated arabic

The transliterated form is an exact representation of the arabic script in roman letters: this is not always straightforward, as there are a lot more letters and modifiers in arabic than there are in the roman alphabet.

If you want to be able to say words accurately, you need to be able to read either arabic or the transliterated form- for example, so that you can see the difference between syn and saad.

Here is a brief summary that shows the relationship between different groups of letters:

LetterTransliteratedArabic
short vowela i u
َ ِ ُ
long vowel (alif)aa ee ii uu
ا َ آ ا ِ ا
alif with hamzaaac iic uuc
أ إ أُ
other long vowelsy w
ي و
other long vowels with hamzayc wc
ئ ٶ
gluttal stop qafq
ق
voiced qafQ
ق
soft consonantd h s t z
د ه س ت ز
alveolar consonantD H S T Z
ض ح ص ط ظ
double-letter consonantsdh sh th
ذ ش ث
t-marbutao
ــَة
alif-layenaY
ـى

It is readable if you ignore hamza 'C ء and tee-marbuta t_o ـة, and read alif-layena aY ى as a.

Pronunced arabic

If you are not interested in learning to read and write arabic writing, you may find the pronounced form easier to use. This shows an arabic word as it would be pronounced by an English person. The stressed syllable is underlined, and a ' is a gluttal stop: think of a cockney saying bottle as bo'le.

Some words are joined together when spoken: the pronounced form shows when joining takes place. See Pronunciation rules for more information.

Arabic Alphabet

َa/æ/fathaصS/sˤ/saad
ِi/ɪ/kasraضD/dˤ/daad
ُu/ʊ/dammaطT/tˤ/taa
ّW//shaddaظZ/z/zaa
أaac/ʔæ/alif-hamza aboveعA/ʕ/ain
إiic/ʔɪ/alif-hamza belowغG/ɣ/ghin
أuuc/ʔʊ/alif-dammaفf/f/fa
اَaa/æ/alif-fathaقq/ʔ/qaf
اِii/ɪ/alif-kasraڤv/v/vee
آee/ʔeə/alif-maddaكk/k/kef
بb/b/beeلl/l/lem
تt/t/teeمm/m/mym
ثth/θ/theeنn/n/nun
دd/d/delًN/n/fathatan
ذdh/z/dhelهh/h/hey
جg/g/gynةo/t/tee-marbuta
حH/ħ/haوw/w/wow
خK/x/khaٶwc/ʊʔ/wow-hamza
چj/dʒ/jynيy/ɪ/yeh
سs/s/synئyc/ʔ/yeh-hamza
شsh/ʃ/shynىY/æ/alif-layena
رr/r/rehءC/ʔ/hamza
زz/z/zyn

َ fatha

Fatha is the short vowel corresponding to a. It is normally written above a consonant and pronounced after it. For ease of reading, this dictionary puts short vowels after the consonant. Short vowels are normally omitted except in the quran.

Transliterated:a
Pronounced:a
IPA Phonetic:/æ/
Tashkyl:َ
Example words
'idaaraiicdaaraoإداَرَة
sha''ashaqqaoشَقَّة
'abrqabrقَبر
tanSeertanSyrتَنصير
SadamSadamصَدَم

ِ kasra

Kasra is the short vowel corresponding to i. It is normally written above a consonant and pronounced after it. For ease of reading, this dictionary puts short vowels after the consonant. Short vowels are normally omitted except in the quran.

Transliterated:i
Pronounced:i
IPA Phonetic:/ɪ/
Tashkyl:ِ
Example words
yimsikyimsikيِمسِك
yiliffyiliffيِلِفّ
yihaewilyiHaewilيِحاَوِل
muhaesibmuHaesibمُحاَسِب
yinfaAyinfaAيِنفَع

ُ damma

Damma is the short vowel corresponding to u. It is normally written above a consonant and pronounced after it. For ease of reading, this dictionary puts short vowels after the consonant. Short vowels are normally omitted except in the quran.

Transliterated:u
Pronounced:u
IPA Phonetic:/ʊ/
Tashkyl:ُ
Example words
burGulburGulبُرغُل
AumrAumrعُمر
kuttaebkuttaebكُتّاَب
munfaeKmunfaeKمُنفاَخ
muKaddaraatmuKaddaraatمُخَدَّراَت

ّ shadda

Shadda is written above a consonant and doubles the consonant. Unlike in english, double consonants are pronounced, so if you take katab and put a shadda above the t, it will be pronounced kat-tab, with one t and the end of the first syllable and one t at the beginning of the next syllable. Shadda is often omitted in written arabic. Double-lem and double-yeh are often written as two separate letters, rather than one with a shadda.

Transliterated:W
Pronounced:
IPA Phonetic://
Tashkyl:ّ
Example words

أ alif-hamza above

Alif with a hamza above is used mainly at the beginning of words. It represents a gluttal stop followed by fatha - a short a. Strictly speaking, it should be written with both a hamza and a fatha.

Transliterated:aac
Pronounced:'a
IPA Phonetic:/ʔæ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:أ
Final:ـأ
Example words
'asaesiaacsaesyأساَسي
'ashbaehaacshbaehأشباَه
'athniyyaaacthniyyaoأثنِييَة
'asaewiraacsaewirأساَوِر
'aswaaraacswaarأسواَر

إ alif-hamza below

Alif with a hamza below is used only at the beginning of words. It represents a gluttal stop followed by kasra - a short i. Strictly speaking, it should be written with both a hamza and a kasra.
Alif-hamza below is used at the beginning of the perfect of many derived verbs, which are formed by adding a prefix (it-, in-, ist- and i?t-) to a base verb. These derived verbs often have a passive (be ...ed) or reflexive (oneself, each other) meaning.

Transliterated:iic
Pronounced:'i
IPA Phonetic:/ʔɪ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:إ
Final:ـإ
Example words
'iQtabasiicQtabasإقتَبَس
'istafraGiicstafraGإستَفرَغ
'itGaddaiictGaddaaإتغَدّاَ
'iDTariicDTarإضطَر
'ittahadiicttaHadإتَّحَد

أ alif-damma

Alif with a damma above is used only at the beginning of words. It represents a gluttal stop followed by damma - a short u. Strictly speaking, it should be written with both a hamza and a damma.

Transliterated:uuc
Pronounced:'u
IPA Phonetic:/ʔʊ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:أ
Final:ـأ
Example words
'uwnruucwnrأونر
'usooduucswdأسود
'ususuucsusأسُس
'urfufuucrfufأرفُف
'umana'uucmanaeCأمَناَء

اَ alif-fatha

Alif with a fatha is used only in the middle and at the end of words. It is usually pronounced either as ae as in aeroplane, or as ar as in hard: these two forms are represented as ae and aa respectively in transliterated arabic. When it is followed by two consonants in a row or a consonant and a long vowel, it is shortened to a short a.
When it follows a lem, the two letters are joined together and written لا. At the end of the 'we' and 'they' form of pronouns and verbs, wow-alif is pronounced as oo.

Transliterated:aa
Pronounced:a
IPA Phonetic:/æ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:اَ
Final:ـاَ
Example words
haraamiHaraamyحَراَمي
nuDaafnuDaafنُضاَف
TaaridTaaridطاَرِد
yihaaDiryiHaaDirيِحاَضِر
'itsallaiictsallaaإتسَلّاَ

اِ alif-kasra

Alif-kasra is used only in ال il, the prefix meaning 'the'. As the kasra is never actually written, it is not clear whether 'the' should be pronounced il, el, or al. As a result, there are regional differences in pronunciation. In the dictionary, we have standardized on il, to avoid confusion.

Transliterated:ii
Pronounced:i
IPA Phonetic:/ɪ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:اِ
Final:ـاِ
Example words
ilmanTaQiil-manTaQاِلمَنطَق
il'urduniil-uucrdunاِلأردُن
ilSafraiil-Safraoاِلصَفرَة
ilmagariil-magarاِلمَجَر
liil'egaarli-iil-eegaarلِاِلآجاَر

آ alif-madda

Alif-madda is used only at the beginning of words. It is pronounced as a gluttal stop followed by ee as in feel.

Transliterated:ee
Pronounced:'e
IPA Phonetic:/ʔeə/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:آ
Final:ـآ
Example words
'ellaheellahآلَّه
'eddibeeddibآدِّب
liil'egaarli-iil-eegaarلِاِلآجاَر
'eddibeeddibآدِّب
'ellaehaheellaehahآلّاَهَه

ب bee

Bee is pronounced as b.

Transliterated:b
Pronounced:b
IPA Phonetic:/b/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ب
Initial:بـ
Medial:ـبـ
Final:ـب
Example words
biilQiwwabi-iil-Qiwwaoبِاِلقِوَّة
muhazzabmuhadhdhabمُهَذَّب
haesibHaesibحاَسِب
tabaAtabaAتَبَع
'alaAaebaaclaeAaebألاَعاَب

ت tee

Tee is pronounced as t.

Transliterated:t
Pronounced:t
IPA Phonetic:/t/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ت
Initial:تـ
Medial:ـتـ
Final:ـت
Example words
nitaeyanitaeyaoنِتاَيَة
nukatnukatنُكَت
yifattishyifattishيِفَتِّش
haDaraatHaDaaraatحَضاَراَت
buharaatbuhaaraatبُهاَراَت

ث thee

Thee is pronounced as voiced th as in thumb, as t. You may also hear s or unvoiced th as in thin: these may be caused by speech impediments.

Transliterated:th
Pronounced:th
IPA Phonetic:/θ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ث
Initial:ثـ
Medial:ـثـ
Final:ـث
Example words
yithanniyithannyيِثَنّي
thanyathaenyaoثاَنيَة
'unthawiyeenuucnthawiyynأنثَوِيين
thawriyyathawriyyaoثَورِييَة
thabtathaebtaoثاَبتَة

د del

Del is pronounced as d.

Transliterated:d
Pronounced:d
IPA Phonetic:/d/
Join left:no
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:د
Final:ـد
Example words
yibtidiyibtidyيِبتِدي
yitSaadimyitSaadimيِتصاَدِم
Au'dAuqdعُقد
widnwidnوِدن
taAdyataAdyaoتَعديَة

ذ dhel

Dhel is pronounced as z.

Transliterated:dh
Pronounced:z
IPA Phonetic:/z/
Join left:no
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ذ
Final:ـذ
Example words
'ingazabiicngadhabإنجَذَب
muhazzabeenmuhadhdhabynمُهَذَّبين
lazeezladhydhلَذيذ
zahhabdhahhabذَهَّب
zahabidhahabyذَهَبي

ج gyn

In Egypt, gyn is pronounced as g as in gold. In most of the arab world it is pronounced as j as in jeans.

Transliterated:g
Pronounced:g
IPA Phonetic:/g/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ج
Initial:جـ
Medial:ـجـ
Final:ـج
Example words
gallidgallidجَلِّد
tagAeedatagAydaoتَجعيدَة
hagzHagzحَجز
ganninganninجَنِّن
gayzagayzaoجَيزَة

ح ha

Ha is an unvoiced but quite audible h sound: there is no equivalent in English.

Transliterated:H
Pronounced:h
IPA Phonetic:/ħ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ح
Initial:حـ
Medial:ـحـ
Final:ـح
Example words
magrooheenmagrwHynمَجروحين
mihammareenmiHammarynمِحَمَّرين
hummuSHummuSحُمُّص
fusahfusaHفُسَح
kahhkaHHكَحّ

خ kha

Kha is an rolled alveolar h like ch in loch, but a little stronger: imagine clearing your throat to make this sound.

Transliterated:K
Pronounced:K
IPA Phonetic:/x/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:خ
Initial:خـ
Medial:ـخـ
Final:ـخ
Example words
saKKansaKKanسَخَّن
KeeshaKyshaoخيشَة
yiKtiraAyiKtiraAيِختِرَع
KuTabKuTabخُطَب
laKbaTalaKbaTaoلَخبَطَة

چ jyn

Jyn is borrowed from Farsi to represent the j sound in imported words like 'agenda'.

Transliterated:j
Pronounced:j
IPA Phonetic:/dʒ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:چ
Initial:چـ
Medial:ـچـ
Final:ـچ
Example words
juwantaetjuwaentaetچُواَنتاَت
bijaemabijaemaoبِچاَمَة
jilaetijilaetyچِلاَتي
jeeleehjylyhچيليه
bijamaetbijaemaetبِچاَماَت

س syn

Syn is an s sound. Many Egyptians, even educated ones, do not distinguish clearly between this and shyn.

Transliterated:s
Pronounced:s
IPA Phonetic:/s/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:س
Initial:سـ
Medial:ـسـ
Final:ـس
Example words
muhaesibmuHaesibمُحاَسِب
yisibbyisibbيِسِبّ
'aQwaesaacQwaesأقواَس
'insaeniicnsaenإنساَن
'istaGalliicstaGallإستَغَلّ

ش shyn

Shyn is a sh

Transliterated:sh
Pronounced:sh
IPA Phonetic:/ʃ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ش
Initial:شـ
Medial:ـشـ
Final:ـش
Example words
'imshaaTiicmshaaTإمشاَط
mushtarimushtaryمُشتَري
mamshamamshYمَمشى
shaddshaddشَدّ
mishakkileenmishakkilynمِشَكِّلين

ر reh

Reh is an r sound.

Transliterated:r
Pronounced:r
IPA Phonetic:/r/
Join left:no
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ر
Final:ـر
Example words
yiDrabyiDrabيِضرَب
mashroobaatmashrwbaatمَشروباَت
yitrifidyitrifidيِترِفِد
'infagariicnfagarإنفَجَر
mazaeriAmazaeriAمَزاَرِع

ز zyn

Zyn is a z sound.

Transliterated:z
Pronounced:z
IPA Phonetic:/z/
Join left:no
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ز
Final:ـز
Example words
muzaeriAmuzaeriAمُزاَرِع
zaeyidzaeyidزاَيِد
mayyizmayyizمَييِز
hizinHizinحِزِن
mugazfamugaezfaoمُجاَزفَة

ص saad

Saad is an alveolar s. It affects the following short vowel, making it heavier.

Transliterated:S
Pronounced:S
IPA Phonetic:/sˤ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ص
Initial:صـ
Medial:ـصـ
Final:ـص
Example words
hiSaSHiSaSحِصَص
SadeeQaSadyQaoصَديقَة
yiSaffaryiSaffarيِصَفَّر
yiSaahibyiSaaHibيِصاَحِب
'itSarrafiictSarrafإتصَرَّف

ض daad

Daad is an alveolar d. It affects the following short vowel, making it heavier.

Transliterated:D
Pronounced:D
IPA Phonetic:/dˤ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ض
Initial:ضـ
Medial:ـضـ
Final:ـض
Example words
haDanaatHaDaanaatحَضاَناَت
'aAraaDaacAraaDأعراَض
faDDafaDDYفَضّى
naaDignaaDigناَضِج
yibayyaDyibayyaDيِبَييَض

ط taa

Taa is an alveolar t. It affects the following short vowel, making it heavier.

Transliterated:T
Pronounced:T
IPA Phonetic:/tˤ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ط
Initial:طـ
Medial:ـطـ
Final:ـط
Example words
yishooTyishwTيِشوط
yiATasyiATasيِعطَس
haTTHaTTحَطّ
KallaTaatKallaaTaatخَلّاَطاَت
KuTabKuTabخُطَب

ظ zaa

Zaa is an alveolar z. It affects the following short vowel, making it heavier.

Transliterated:Z
Pronounced:Z
IPA Phonetic:/z/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ظ
Initial:ظـ
Medial:ـظـ
Final:ـظ
Example words
yitGaaZyitGaaZيِتغاَظ
niZaamniZaamنِظاَم
bayZeenbaayZynباَيظين
niZaamniZaamنِظاَم
yilhaZyilHaZيِلحَظ

ع ain

Ain is an alveolar a. This letter makes more problems for Europeans than any other: it sounds close to alif, and you can easily confuse people if you do not say it correctly. Ain is treated as a consonant for the purposes of pronunciation rules.

Transliterated:A
Pronounced:A
IPA Phonetic:/ʕ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ع
Initial:عـ
Medial:ـعـ
Final:ـع
Example words
TiliATiliAطِلِع
taAseellaettaAsyl-laetتَعسيلّاَت
AishushAishushعِشُش
taAleemtaAlymتَعليم
AammiyyaAaemmiyyaoعاَمِّييَة

غ ghin

Ghin is an alveolar g.

Transliterated:G
Pronounced:G
IPA Phonetic:/ɣ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:غ
Initial:غـ
Medial:ـغـ
Final:ـغ
Example words
GaraDGaraDغَرَض
raGaraGYرَغى
yiGtiSibyiGtiSibيِغتِصِب
faraaGfaraaGفَراَغ
GaaZGaaZغاَظ

ف fa

Fa is an f sound.

Transliterated:f
Pronounced:f
IPA Phonetic:/f/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ف
Initial:فـ
Medial:ـفـ
Final:ـف
Example words
'iftakariicftakarإفتَكَر
masaefamasaefaoمَساَفَة
shafaeyifshafaeyifشَفاَيِف
faekirfaekirفاَكِر
foolfwlفول

ق qaf

Qaf is pronounced by Cairenes as either an alveolar k or as a gluttal stop. People from upper Egypt pronounce it as a g.

Transliterated:q
Pronounced:'
IPA Phonetic:/ʔ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ق
Initial:قـ
Medial:ـقـ
Final:ـق
Example words
mun'aarmunqaarمُنقاَر
yit'aesimyitqaesimيِتقاَسِم
'urAqurAقُرع
yi'taSidyiqtaSidيِقتَصِد
tafree'tafryqتَفريق

ڤ vee

Vee is borrowed from Farsi to represent the v sound in imported words like 'villa'.

Transliterated:v
Pronounced:v
IPA Phonetic:/v/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ڤ
Initial:ڤـ
Medial:ـڤـ
Final:ـڤ
Example words
varandavarandaoڤَرَندَة
broovabrwvaoبروڤَة
bravwbravw!برَڤو
bravwbravw!برَڤو
vazaatvaazaatڤاَزاَت

ك kef

Kef is a k sound.

Transliterated:k
Pronounced:k
IPA Phonetic:/k/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ك
Initial:كـ
Medial:ـكـ
Final:ـك
Example words
mafkookmafkwkمَفكوك
kahraba'kahrabaaCكَهرَباَء
kubbayaetkubbaeyaetكُبّاَياَت
sikkeenasikkynaoسِكّينَة
daAakdaAakدَعَك

ل lem

Lem is normally pronounced as l. If it is followed by an alif, the letters are joined together as لا. In the il prefix (which means 'the'), if it is attached to a noun that starts with a Sun letter, the lem is pronounced by replacing with a second sun-letter, so il-Dwr is pronounced iD-Dwr.

Transliterated:l
Pronounced:l
IPA Phonetic:/l/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ل
Initial:لـ
Medial:ـلـ
Final:ـل
Example words
'ahwaelaacHwaelأحواَل
tashkeelatashkylaoتَشكيلَة
kalbkalbكَلب
ruloohrulwhرُلوه
malaeAibmalaeAibمَلاَعِب

م mym

Mym is pronounced as m

Transliterated:m
Pronounced:m
IPA Phonetic:/m/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:م
Initial:مـ
Medial:ـمـ
Final:ـم
Example words
'asmaraacsmarأسمَر
maseehiyeenmasyHiyynمَسيحِيين
sumaensumaenسُماَن
'almaaZaaclmaaZألماَظ
mahroo'eenmaHrwqynمَحروقين

ن nun

Nun is pronounced as n

Transliterated:n
Pronounced:n
IPA Phonetic:/n/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:yes
Solitary:ن
Initial:نـ
Medial:ـنـ
Final:ـن
Example words
'almaenaaclmaenألماَن
tahassuntaHassunتَحَسُّن
naggaarnaggaarنَجّاَر
madaniyeenmadaniyynمَدَنِيين
'awanTagiyyaaacwanTagiyyaoأوَنطَجِييَة

ً fathatan

Fathatan is used only above an alif at the end of a word to represent an n

Transliterated:N
Pronounced:n
IPA Phonetic:/n/
Tashkyl:ً
Example words
fiAlanfiAlaeNفِعلاً
'aSlanaacSlaeNأصلاً
tamaemantamaemaeNتَماَماً
ta'reebantaqrybaeNتَقريباً
'abadanaacbadaeNأبَداً

ه hey

Hey is a very gentle, unrestricted, unvoiced h sound.

Transliterated:h
Pronounced:h
IPA Phonetic:/h/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ه
Initial:هـ
Medial:ـهـ
Final:ـه
Example words
moogahmwgahموجَه
muhandisamuhandisaoمُهَندِسَة
handasahandasaoهَندَسَة
wugoohwugwhوُجوه
hublhublهُبل

ة tee-marbuta

Tee-marbuta is a hey with two dots above it. For many words, opinions vary about whether the word should be spelt with hey or tee-marbuta. In this dictionary, most feminine singular nouns are spelt with tee-marbuta at the end: The ending of these words is pronounced as either -a or -ah in the nominative form, and as -it in the genitive form.

Transliterated:o
Pronounced:t
IPA Phonetic:/t/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ة
Initial:ةـ
Medial:ـةـ
Final:ـة
Example words
TabeeAaTabyAaoطَبيعَة
mazzamazzaoمَزَّة
mushaetmushaeoمُشاَة
TabKaTabKaoطَبخَة
liAbaliAbaoلِعبَة

و wow

Wow can be pronounced as w when it is next to at least one short vowel, and as oo when it is between two consonants. The 'we' and 'they' form of verbs and pronouns ends in wow-alif, which is pronounced oo as in 'too'.

Transliterated:w
Pronounced:w
IPA Phonetic:/w/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:و
Final:ـو
Example words
koorsaatkwrsaatكورساَت
yiwaDDabyiwaDDabيِوَضَّب
'awanTagiaacwanTagyأوَنطَجي
maKTooTmaKTwTمَخطوط
wawaوَ

ٶ wow-hamza

wow-hamza is pronounce as u followed by a gluttal stop.

Transliterated:wc
Pronounced:w'
IPA Phonetic:/ʊʔ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ٶ
Final:ـٶ
Example words
mw'ayyidmwcayyidمٶَييِد
mw'aththaramwcaththaraoمٶَثَّرَة
mw'allifamwcallifaoمٶَلِّفَة
yugrw'yugrwcيُجرٶ
masw'oolmaswcwlمَسٶول

ي yeh

yeh is pronounced as y when it is next to at least one short vowel, and as ee in 'feel' when it is between two consonants or a consonant and wow. At the end of a word, it is pronounced as i.

Transliterated:y
Pronounced:i
IPA Phonetic:/ɪ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ي
Initial:يـ
Medial:ـيـ
Final:ـي
Example words
yitwilidyitwilidيِتوِلِد
yiGayyaryiGayyarيِغَييَر
GalayaenGalayaenغَلَياَن
shaGGaleenshaGGaelynشَغّاَلين
kanaeyiskanaeyisكَناَيِس

ئ yeh-hamza

yeh-hamza is a gluttal stop.

Transliterated:yc
Pronounced:'
IPA Phonetic:/ʔ/
Join left:yes
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ئ
Medial:ـئـ
Example words
Aa'laetAaeyclaetعاَئلاَت
guz'iyanguzyciyaeNجُزئِياً
hee'ahyycaoهيئَة
baari'baariycباَرِئ
yi'innyiycinnيِئِنّ

ى alif-layena

alif-layena is used at the end of words as an a sound. Verbs whose perfect ends with alif-layena normally have an imperfect that ends with a yeh.

Transliterated:Y
Pronounced:a
IPA Phonetic:/æ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ى
Final:ـى
Example words
daAwadaAwYدَعوى
daAwadaAwYدَعوى
'inhanaiicnHanYإنحَنى
AalaAalYعَلى
sammasammYسَمّى

ء hamza

Hamza is pronounced as a gluttal stop. It appears occasionally as a full-size letter at the end of a word, and more frequently as a small symbol above or below alif, and above wow and yeh.

Transliterated:C
Pronounced:'
IPA Phonetic:/ʔ/
Join left:no
Sun letter:no
Solitary:ء
Example words
ilGa'iil-GaaCاِلغاَء
baedi'baediCباَدِء
badee'baedyCباَديء
'istithna'iicstithnaaCإستِثناَء
nushaTa'nushaTaaCنُشَطاَء